Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Your Business: Mitigating the Impact
Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Your Business: Mitigating the Impact
March 16, 2020

Can that Force Majeure Contract Clause Help?

Coronavirus is a serious epidemic, the likes of which we have not seen before. The law recognizes that certain uncontrollable circumstances (such as the Coronavirus epidemic) may make performance of business obligations impossible or impractical under the circumstances. This is known as a “force majeure” or a “force majeure event.” In simple terms this is something that cannot be anticipated or within someone’s control. Force majeure events include “acts of nature/God” (such as a flood, earthquake, hurricane, tornado), acts of people (riots, strikes, government-imposed shutdowns, etc.), or more broadly those events that are determined to be completely outside of one’s control and thus excusing performance.

The Force Majeure Clause

Many contracts contain what is called a “force majeure clause.”  These are contractual provisions that eliminate what would otherwise be a default for non-performance because of a force majeure event.  Here is an example as to how this works. Imagine I promise to deliver you an important machine by Thursday morning. Now imagine late Wednesday evening an earthquake were to hit which results in all of the roads being closed indefinitely. Clearly this would prevent me from fulfilling my obligation, and I would be in default. However, it was not my fault the earthquake happened; I had no control that the roads were shut down. If my contract to deliver you the important machine contained a “force majeure clause” I would likely be exempt from any default penalties for a delay in performance.

In order to assess whether your business may be impacted by you or the other party evoking a force majeure clause, you have to first determine whether your contract contains such a clause and what it includes.  For example, here is a typical force majeure clause:

No Party shall be liable or responsible to the other Parties, nor be deemed to have defaulted under or breached this Agreement, for any failure or delay in fulfilling or performing any term of this Agreement, when and to the extent such failure or delay is caused by or results from acts beyond the impacted Party’s (the “Impacted Party”) reasonable control, including the following force majeure events (“Force Majeure Events”): (a) acts of God; (b) flood, fire, earthquake or explosion; (c) war, invasion, hostilities (whether war is declared or not), terrorist threats or acts, riot or other civil unrest; (d) government order or law; (e) actions, embargoes or blockades in effect on or after the Effective Date of this Agreement; (f) action by any governmental authority; (g) national or regional emergency; (h) strikes, labor stoppages or slowdowns or other industrial disturbances; and (i) shortage of adequate power or transportation facilities.

Note that this clause does not expressly include public health events like a pandemic, making it uncertain whether this language can provide relief for a defaulting party.  See this article regarding how this defense is playing out in China:

If the contract has no force majeure language at all, then a court will base its decision regarding whether to excuse the default of an affected party during the force majeure event on the foreseeability of the event. There are a variety of laws that may come into play; for example, the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) excuses a seller of goods from timely delivery or for non-delivery of goods where its performance has become impracticable either: (a) by the occurrence of a contingency the non-occurrence of which was a basic assumption on which the contract was made; and (b) by compliance in good faith with any applicable foreign or domestic governmental regulation or order whether or not it later proves to be invalid. (UCC § 2-615(a).)  Accordingly, the government ordered isolation and travel bans we are experiencing are important factors in the assessment.


What Should you Be Doing?

With Coronavirus (COVID-19) shutting down operations, you and your business may be in a situation: (1) where your business cannot perform its obligations; (2) where your business can perform but your vendors cannot provide you what you need to perform; and/or (3) where your business can perform but your customer no longer needs your product or service. For example, today the NCAA announced the cancellation of March Madness. Imagine you hold the contract to provide food for an arena where the NCAA tournament games would be played. Your business could have performed, but your customer no longer needs the product because there is no game being played due to the virus. (We will be writing a separate business-interruption insurance piece which in part addresses this very issue.)

While this is all very overwhelming, there are steps you can take:

  • Assess whether (or to what extent) the Coronavirus epidemic will impact your business:
    1. Your Obligations: Identify if your business will be unable to perform its obligations
    2. Your Vendors: Identify if your vendors will be unable to perform their obligations to you (hindering your ability to perform)
    3. Your Customers: Identify if your customers will no longer need your products/services, and for how long (granted, this answer remains elusive at this time)


  • If the Coronavirus epidemic will impact your business:
    1. Your Obligations: Identify when you believe you will be able to perform (i.e., when can you resume performance? This is as much about what needs to happen before you can resume than a precise date…)
    2. Your Vendors: Identify what alternative solutions you can utilize; if you have alternatives to the vendors you are currently utilizing, even if more costly, your reliance on force majeure is less certain; and/or
    3. Your Customers: Identifiy which goods and services you no longer need because your customers no longer need something from you and see if you can delay or cancel the purchase of such goods and services.


  • Most Importantly, Communicate and Notify, Early and Often:
    1. Your Obligations: Notify your customers as soon as you can if you believe you will be unable to perform, as well as when you believe you can resume performance (if you can identify that). This will help them mitigate their damages, which they have an obligation to do. If you anticipate that you will be in default, we can help you evaluate your options based on the contracts and applicable law specific to your situation.
    2. Your Vendors: Talk to your vendors and find out whether they can meet their obligations to you in a timely manner; if not, when can they resume? If they are seeking to evoke force majeure and you are not sure of your options, we can help you evaluate their position and your options.
    3. Your Customers: Reach out and generate goodwill and cooperation with your customers; it will help you know what to expect from them. Have an idea in advance of whether you are going to be lenient, or firm, with the enforcement of your contracts.

Every situation is different, but the common thread is that timely assessments of your options and effective communication are key! The evaluation of your circumstances, risks, and options should be happening now.  The messages you and your business communicate must be crafted properly.

If you have questions, please contact us to help you assess your situation, develop a strategy and execute.  As is usually the case, knowledge is power. We know these are very challenging times and wish to be a resource for you as you continue to navigate this crisis.


This blog was written by the Hunter Business Law Team.

DISCLAIMER: This blog is for educational purposes only and does not offer nor substitute legal advice. Additionally, this blog does not establish an attorney-client relationship and is not for advertising or solicitation purposes. Any of the content contained herein shall not be used to make any decision without first consulting an attorney. The hiring of an attorney is an important decision not to be based on advertisements or blogs. Hunter Business Law expressly disclaims any and all liability in regard to any actions, or lack thereof, based on any contents of this blog.

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